What is a Polymer Lithium Battery?

polymer lithium battery

What is a Polymer Lithium Battery?

Lithium polymer batteries are a variation of lithium-ion batteries. They have the same positive and negative materials as lithium-ion, but use a solid polymer instead of a liquid electrolyte between the electrodes.

This allows for higher energy density. However, they are still prone to thermal runaway, which can cause fires or explosions.

1. High energy density

Energy density is how much energy the battery can hold in its volume, a higher energy density will mean more run time. Lithium polymer batteries have one of the highest energy densities among rechargeable lithium batteries, this means they can fit more into a smaller space which makes them ideal for electronic devices that require compact designs.

They also have lower internal resistance and have a low rate of self-discharge, so they can keep their charge longer. These factors make them more efficient than other rechargeable batteries.

Lithium polymer batteries use the same cathode and anode material as lithium-ion systems, but have a gelled electrolyte instead of a porous separator. The electrolyte is typically a lithium salt solution in a polymer such as polycaprolactone or polyethylene oxide.

2. High discharge rate

High discharge rate lithium batteries are ideal for use in power tools, motors, electric vehicles and many other applications that require higher discharge rates. They are also lightweight, and have a long lifespan.

However, it is important to keep in mind that these batteries need to be used and stored properly in order to get the most out of them. This includes storing them in a cool and dry place, and making sure that they are not overcharged or overdischarged.

Lithium polymer batteries also have a longer battery life than lithium-ion batteries. They can usually be charged and discharged 300 to 500 times before they need to be replaced. They also have a low self-discharge and are more resistant to oxidation than nickel-metal hydride or nickel-cadmium batteries.

3. Lightweight

Lithium polymer batteries are lighter and smaller than traditional lithium-ion batteries. They also have a lower chance of leaking electrolyte. Because of their light weight, they can be used in a wider range of devices.

Li-polymer batteries are used in products that require a small battery and long-lasting power source. These include laptops, wearables, and cell phones. They also have a low profile, so they can fit into thin enclosures.

The solid-polymer electrolyte (SPE) is a promising candidate to replace the highly flammable and volatile organic liquid electrolytes in high-energy lithium metal batteries, but it suffers from poor deformability and wettability, thus reducing interface contact area and RT ionic conductivity. To overcome this limitation, a novel integration strategy of polymer lithium battery casting liquid monomer precursors on a 3D SSE skeleton and in situ polymerization has been developed, effectively improving interfacial properties and alleviating side reactions.

4. Low mold opening cost

Due to its lightweight, low mold opening cost and high safety, lithium polymer battery is gradually expanding its market share. Its cycle life can reach over 500 times under normal conditions, and it doesn’t suffer from memory effect like nickel-cadmium or nickel-metal hydride batteries.

However, it’s important to remember that lithium batteries can also combust in extreme cases of thermal runaway. This happens when the internal temperature increases Solar energy storage system rapidly, causing a chain reaction that eventually produces enough heat to explode the battery or cause a fire.

The good news is that this phenomenon is extremely rare and has never happened in commercial products. JAKERTECH’s new specific battery injection moulding process makes this type of batteries even more dependable, and allows them to be produced in large format cells for cordless tools or hybrid battery/capacitor packs in electric cars and stationary storage applications.

5. Good safety performance

Lithium batteries can be prone to thermal runaway, which means that they can catch fire or explode. This isn’t common in most applications, but it can happen if the battery overheats.

Polymers are used in several ways within a battery to improve its safety. They can be used as separators, binders, or coatings. They act to keep the electrode materials apart and prevent internal short-circuiting, or they can be designed with a shutdown effect to stop ion flow between the electrodes. This can help to reduce the amount of heat that is generated, and allow natural heat dissipation to bring the temperature back down.

These polymers also provide good chemical stability and high ionic conductivity. This allows the use of thinner separators and improves battery performance. It can even allow the removal of external safety components like PTC and fuses, which saves on manufacturing costs.

6. Small thickness

A polymer lithium battery has a much smaller thickness compared to liquid batteries, which can reduce the overall weight and thickness of a product. This allows manufacturers to design more compact and sleek digital products like ultra-thin notebook computers and mobile phones.

Lithium polymer batteries are flexible, thanks to their gel-like or solid polymer electrolyte. This makes them perfect for curved and irregularly-shaped devices such as smartwatches and wearable health trackers.

In addition, unlike liquid batteries, polymer lithium batteries can’t explode. Although the chances of a polymer lithium battery catching fire are slim, they can overheat if exposed to high temperatures. This is why it’s important to keep these batteries away from heat sources. This will help prevent overheating and prolong their lifespan.

7. High capacity

Lithium polymer batteries use a gelled polymer electrolyte instead of liquid one. Compared to liquid electrolytes, the gelled polymer can improve its ionic conductivity at room temperature.

Gelled polymer electrolytes can also provide an excellent mechanical property, and this is especially important for flexible applications. In addition, a 3D self-assembled polymeric ionic liquid compounded with nanocellulose can reduce the IL leakage problem.

In terms of capacity, polymer lithium batteries can offer a similar power as traditional liquid lithium batteries. They can be used in a wide range of electronic devices, including mobile phones and tablets. Moreover, they can be assembled into an ultra-thin case that resembles a credit card. This is an advantage compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries, which require a hard shell for compression.

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